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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Organized Tawarruq Between Masālih (benefits) and Mafāsid (harms)

By : Dr. Zaharuddin Abd Rahman

The renowned Muslim economist Prof. Nejatullah Siddiqi lists the harmful effects of tawarruq in his view as the following:[1]

• It leads to the creation of debt whose volume is likely to go on increasing.
• It results in an exchange of money now with more money in the future, which is unfair in view of the risk and uncertainty involved.
• It leads, through debt proliferation, to gambling like speculation.
• It leads, through debt finance, to greater instability in the economy.
• In a debt-based economy, the money supply is linked to debt with a tendency towards inflationary expansion.
• It results in inequity in the distribution of income and wealth.
• It results, through debt finance, in an inefficient allocation of resources.
• It contributes, by consolidating debt financing, to raising anxiety levels and the destruction of the environment.

He also dictates that the approval of tawarruq may benefit individuals. However, if this is practised on a large scale, it would result in the proliferation of debt in the society, which would bring macroeconomic instability. Thus, before deciding on the Sharīʿah compliance of such a product, the Sharīʿah Advisory Board of any Islamic financial institution must take into account the macroeconomic consequences of approving the product.


In reply to the Siddiqi’s statement, which says that ‘tawarruq may have benefited individuals, however, if this is practised on a large scale, it would result in proliferation of debt in the society, which would bring macroeconomic instability’, during the interview made by the Islamic Finance News editor in 2007, I pointed out several points through the below response, which remain as my viewpoint today.

This opinion is quite interesting and the result of the analysis is deemed relevant to the Sharīʿah Advisory Board (SAB); however, I do not think these facts would prohibit Tawarruq immediately. Especially when such a result is tied to ‘if practised on a large scale’, the new Sharīʿah ruling (prohibition of Tawarruq) will only come into the picture when that particular situation takes place and the large-scale definition is quite vague, since the maqasid is conditional upon a predicted situation that might or might not occur. Therefore, this kind of analysis will not greatly impact on the current ruling on Tawarruq. However, as more accurate and empirical evidence is accumulated, then the Sharīʿah scholars may see the need to reconsider their earlier opinion.[2]

Secondly, that is because the issue of ‘debt in the society’ is a real fact and almost every person has personal debts. Moreover Islam allows debt and deems a person who gives a benevolent loan to be 18 times better than giving charity. Debt also carries one of the Maqasid Sharīʿah, which is helping the one in need. If the Sharīʿah scholars issued a fatwa based on the argument of the proliferation of debt in the society, the Sharīʿah scholars might also have to prohibit all kind of debts in all products, such as Istisna, Murābahah, Salam etc., because all of it also would result in proliferation of debt in the society. As for me, this kind of prohibition will contradict the Maqasid Sharīʿah, because Muslim life will turn to be very difficult and no business can be made.[3]

                                                       Exhibit : Tawarruq Transaction

The experienced Islamic banker Haneef seems to agree with the above statement when he poses a similar rebuttal against Siddiqi’s debt argument; he elaborates:

Importantly mafāsid also can be perpetrated through the contemporary murābahah, ijārah and all contemporary contracts. Contemporary Murābahah also creates debt and results in more money in future for the financier. Contemporary murābahah also can lead to gambling-like speculation and also create instability in the economy. Contemporary ijārah can also create inequity in wealth distribution and inefficient resource allocation. Contemporary istiṣnaʿ can also raise anxiety levels and destroy the environment. So why should only tawarruq be prohibited? It may well be true that, compared to other contemporary contracts, the nature of the tawarruq has the potential to create greater abuse and spread of mafāsid, but none of the learned tawarruq opponents were able to provide any empirical evidence or studies to show that tawarruq has in fact spread more mafāsid than the other contemporary contracts.

Haneef later on proposed four controls, which he believes would limit the issue of excessive usages and abuses of the tawarruq concept.[4] All of the suggestions are sensibly acceptable from my perspective, especially when looking to the current needs of Islamic financial institutions to be competent in managing their assets and liability and liquidity administration, reducing risk exposure to the interest rate and currency rate volatility and also attracting corporate clients who are in need of such similar hedging arrangements. Indisputably, we could realize that there is a contradiction between the harm and the benefit. Contrary to the potential harmful effects that were pointed out by Siḍḍiqi, here is a list of the benefits (maṣālih) that could be achieved through commodity murābahah:

It converts the creation of conventional ribawi debt to which is carried out according to Islamic law, even if only from the micro level it is still believed to have initial effect to the betterment in the future.It gives an opportunity to the commodity owner to venture into the industry by offering its commodity to be used for the transaction. This is in turn would benefit many commodity owners, though it could not be realized today, but it will open a new potential market for the commodity owner to sell its commodity efficiently. This henceforth will link the organized tawarruq to the real development in economic activities. If not, it would at least furnish the owner with financial strength to provide opportunities to move forward.It would offer the companies alternatives to deviate from the dreadful conventional derivatives market, and as a result mitigate the potential exposure to gambling and excessive speculation. This is because the Sharīʿah advisers of the Islamic financial institutions supervise every single use of the Sharīʿah-compliant derivatives-like options and swaps, to ensure that they are for hedging purposes only. It protects the Islamic financial institution from being badly hurt by the usury effect of interest and currency rate manipulation.It provides Islamic financial institutions with a considerable opportunity to move forward in expanding their business size. Currently, assets under Islamic financial institutions’ management across the globe still barely reach 20% compared with their conventional counterparts. It is believed that organized tawarruq could play a positive role in increasing IFIs’ stability in the immense conventional market. Slowly, it is hoped, when the time comes, IFIs would be able to shy away from organized tawarruq to a better product. Haneef says: ‘perhaps, a 2/3rd market share may be the appropriate level to be considered as significant given the enormous challenges to be faced in transforming the current debt-oriented financial platform into a profit and loss sharing financial system’.[5] I may not agree with the two-thirds idea, but at least Islamic financial institutions could courageously make up radical changes when they have reached 50% of the market share.


While apprehending the Achilles heel of the present organized tawarruq practices, especially with regard to the LME, firstly, each and every single violation in the transaction should not be generalized to other organized tawarruq arrangements made by individual Islamic banks, as there are several other IFIs using Bursa al-Silaʿ of Malaysia, Able Ace Raakin Private Limited Company of Malaysia[6] and also IdotTV airtime commodity[7] as their product. Whilst some others might have their own arrangement with the real seller, it is immaterial to prohibit the whole concept and its application by referring only to violations made by certain IFIs. Furthermore, the need for options and swaps-like products is undeniably necessary to maintain the survival of the IFIs in this conventional financial framework. There are several Islamic maxims that support this, among others:

كل ما نهي عنه لغيره يباح للحاجة

Meaning: Everything which is forbidden because something else may be allowed because of the necessity.[8]

حكم الشيء مع الحاجة يخالف حكمه مع عدم الحاجة

Meaning: Ruling constitution at the time of necessity differs from while it is not.[9]

According to the Islamic Banker’s editor, M. Parker, tawarruq has hitherto been practised in most countries where Islamic finance is provided except perhaps in Qatar, where the Sharīʿah scholars have discouraged its use per se. However, more and more Islamic banks in countries including Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Kuwait and the UAE are now shunning tawarruq, even its accepted form, perhaps to avoid market confusion.[10]

Notwithstanding the above fact, it is noted that Saudi’s biggest Islamic bank, Al-Rajhi, approves the organized tawarruq concept; furthermore, it has already undersigned an agreement with the Malaysian Commodity Murābahah House, namely Bursa Suq Al-Silaʿ, which at the same time claims to be the world’s first end-to-end Sharīʿah-compliant commodity trading platform that facilitates commodity-based Islamic financing and investment transactions. ‘The admission of Al-Rajhi, one of the world’s largest Islamic banks, is further testament of the acceptance of the Bursa Suq Al-Silaʿ platform and the structure of Tawarruq in facilitating Islamic finance by Sharīʿah Scholars from the Middle East’, explained a statement from Bursa Malaysia.[11]

To conclude the discussion on organized tawarruq, which is the backbone of the most Sharīʿah-compliant products, it is realized that most of the issues raised by the opponents of the concept are rather fragile. While some notably cannot withstand the refutation, others are either confined to an isolated bad practice or part of the violation of a valid sale, which should not trigger a mass prohibition of the concept.

Other than that, the concern that surfaces is whether or not it seems to fall into the bayʿ al-ʿInah category, and that is when the commodities are being prearranged in the transactions where the commodities will eventually be returned to the original seller. In the situation where there is no arrangement, the customary practices of the commodity’s seller would be crucial for reference. It is recognized in Islamic law that the customary practice will be considered as a condition, so it could be deemed that the transactions contain al-ʿInah elements. Still, the proponents and opponents’ views in this sense are fairly balanced.

I would be inclined to say that the utmost view in the case of organized tawarruq, at this present size of the Islamic financial institutions, is to balance the harm and benefit of the transaction, and it should be contained only for the hedging-related product where no other better concept is available.

As for other than derivatives-related products, it should also be allowed in the event that other acceptable concepts cannot be practised due to various constraints, especially concerning the state law or regulation, which is beyond the control of the Islamic financial institutions. For example, in the case that was put forward by Haneef, in some markets, the law allows a conventional bank to give a home loan and take a mortgage over the native land, like Arab land or Malay reserve land. An Islamic bank, if it is to offer the Ijārah, Mushākarah or Murābahah concept to its customers, needs to own the land first before pursuing the next contract. Unfortunately, the local laws forbid such ownership of native land, unless all the shareholders of the Islamic bank are natives. Because most of the Islamic banks or Islamic windows are part of a public listed company, such a requirement is highly difficult to fulfil. In another instance, a corporation won a license to run a cellular phone business in Saudi Arabia, and is in need of a large amount of cash to enable the operation. The Islamic financier offered a simple tri-partied murābahah product, where the financier would buy the license from the regulator and subsequently sell it to the corporation at a mark-up price. The regulator rejected the proposal, stating that the law only provided the sale to the corporation and it cannot be given to the financiers. Even after the financier tried to use wakālah, or agency contract, and created a Special Purposes Company to circumvent the state law, its efforts were wasted. These are two genuine instances, which require Islamic financial institutions to seek assistance from the organized tawarruq concept.[12]

It is realized that, while the product might be acceptable on its micro level, it may not necessarily be allowable at a certain point in time, when the overwhelming harm outweighs the benefits. For instance, purchasing goods on a credit basis is allowable in Islam, but if the buyer already expects to fall short in his payment obligation, the seller is permitted to refute the purchase, as it will inflict harm on either the seller or the buyer. A well-known Islamic legal maxim states:

لا ضرر ولا ضرار

Meaning: There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm.

However, allowing the Shariah compliant product based on commodity murabaha or tawarruq will neither bring any direct harm nor reciprocate it to either the Islamic world or the Muslim community, as the usage of tawarruq it certain product especially with regards to shariah compliant derivative product could help the Islamic financial institutions to mitigate the unnecessary financial risks that inherited from conventional finance and its framework. Thus, such a restriction is not applicable in this matter.

The existence of Islamic laws that originated from the pre-Islamic foundation such as the slavery system is accepted in Islam but with modifications, and the same applies to the Niẓām al-ʿĀqilah,[13] Al-Qasāmah,[14] Jāhiliy poetry, the slavery system, the usage of gold and silver coins as currency and many more. All of these evinces that Islamic law may adapt to any system and foreign law, on the condition that it straightens up justice to people and brings benefits. Hence, the modern financial system and products unarguably can be acclimatized to suit the Islamic commercial law’s requirement, which eventually benefits the people at large.

Dr. Zaharuddin Abd Rahman
25 April 2012

Al-Quran Bongkar Rahsia Pembinaan Piramid


FIRMAN Allah SWT yang bermaksud: Dan berkatalah Firaun: Wahai kaumku, aku tidak mengetahui Tuhan bagimu selain aku. Maka bakarlah wahai Haman untukku tanah liat kemudian buatkanlah untukku bangunan yang tinggi agar aku dapat naik melihat Tuhan Musa, dan sesungguhnya aku benar-benar yakin bahawa dia (Musa) orang-orang pendusta. (al-Qasas: 38).

Daripada penjelasan ayat al-Quran di atas jelaslah bahawa selama ini manusia menjadi hairan dan kagum bagaimanakah bangunan-bangunan yang dibinakan oleh Firaun iaitu piramid dapat berdiri megah dan perkasa di bumi Mesir pada zaman pemerintahannya hingga kini.

Apakah rahsia di sebalik pembinaan piramid itu?

Akhbar Amerika Times edisi 1 Disember 2006, telah menyiarkan berita saintifik yang mengesahkan bahawa Firaun telah menggunakan tanah liat untuk membina piramid. Menurut kajian tersebut, disebutkan bahawa batu-batu yang digunakan untuk membuat piramid adalah daripada tanah liat yang dipanaskan sehingga membentuk batuan keras yang sukar dibezakan dengan batu asalnya.

Para saintis mengatakan bahawa Firaun mahir dalam bidang ilmu kimia dalam menguruskan tanah liat sehingga menjadi batu. Teknik yang mereka gunakan sangat misteri jika dilihat dari kodifikasi nombor di batu yang mereka tinggalkan.

Profesor Gilles Hug dan Dr. Michael Barsoum, menegaskan bahawa piramid yang paling besar di Giza, dibuat daripada dua jenis batuan yang terdiri daripada batu semula jadi dan batu-batu yang dibuat secara manual hasil daripada olahan tanah liat.

Baru-baru ini majalah Journal of American Ceramic Society memaparkan artikel kajian mengenai bagaimanakah Firaun membina piramid di Mesir yang mengkagumkan itu sebagai peninggalan sejarah tamadun dunia.

Kajian itu menegaskan, bahawa Firaun menggunakan tanah jenis slurry untuk membina monumen yang tinggi, termasuk piramid. Justeru itu tidak mungkin bagi seseorang untuk mengangkat batu besar dan berat ribuan kilogram. Seterusnya pada dasar piramid, Firaun menggunakan batu semula jadi atau batu alam.

Lumpur tersebut merupakan campuran lumpur kapur yang dipanaskan dengan wap air garam dan akan menghasilkan wap air sehingga terbentuknya campuran tanah liat. Kemudian olahan itu dituangkan ke dalam tempat yang disediakan di dinding piramid. Lumpur yang sudah diadun mengikut saiz yang dikehendaki itu dibakar, lalu diletakkan di tempat yang sudah disediakan di dinding piramid.

Sehubungan itu, Profesor Davidovits telah mengambil sampel batu piramid yang terbesar untuk dilakukan analisis dengan menggunakan mikroskop elektron terhadap batu tersebut. Hasilnya, beliau menegaskan bahawa batu itu diperbuat daripada lumpur. Selama ini tanpa penggunaan mikroskop elektron, ahli geologi belum mampu untuk membezakan antara batu alam semula jadi dengan batu buatan manusia.

Penemuan oleh Davidovits adalah hasil kajian yang memakan masa kira-kira 20 tahun. Sebelum kajian yang begitu lama terhadap piramid Bosnia, Piramid Matahari dan menjelaskan bahawa batu-batunya diperbuat daripada tanah liat. Ini memperkuatkan lagi keyakinan bahawa kaedah ini tersebar luas di masa yang lalu.

Tanah liat

Sebelum ini, seorang saintis Belgium, Guy Demortier, telah bertahun-tahun mencari jawapan daripada pembuatan batu besar yang tersergam di puncak-puncak piramid. Beliau berkata:, "Setelah bertahun-tahun melakukan kajian dan penyelidikan, sekarang barulah saya yakin bahawa piramid yang terletak di Mesir diperbuat dengan menggunakan tanah liat."

Bukti-bukti dari kajian menunjukkan kepada kita bahawa bangunan-bangunan raksasa, patung-patung raksasa dan tiang-tiang yang ditemui dalam tamadun canggih zaman silam, juga dibina daripada 'tanah liat'.

Pembongkaran misteri piramid tersebut adalah hasil daripada mukjizat al-Quran yang telah berbicara sejak ribuan tahun dahulu sebelum para saintis dan ilmuan dunia menemukan rahsia tersebut.

Hairan dan ajaib, sejak 1,400 tahun yang lampau, Nabi Muhammad SAW dan beratus tahun selepas berakhirnya Dinasti Firaun di Mesir, memberitahu bahawa Firaun membina monumen yang megah dan tersohor itu yang dikenali sebagai piramid dengan menggunakan tanah liat.

Jika ditinjau daripada kejadian Nabi Adam sebagai bapa manusia dan menjadi khalifah di bumi, adalah juga berasal daripada penciptaan tanah liat yang ditiupkan roh oleh Allah SWT dan wujudlah sebagai manusia yang pertama di permukaan bumi.

Daripada pemaparan hakikat ayat al-Quran di atas, jelaslah membuktikan bahawa Nabi Muhammad SAW tidaklah berbicara mengikut hawa nafsunya melainkan hidayah dan petunjuk daripada Allah SWT yang menciptakan Firaun dan menenggelamkan dia di Laut Merah bersama tenteranya.

Malah Allah juga menyelamatkan Nabi Musa as daripada kekejaman Firaun menuju tanah dan bumi Palestin yang didambakan sampai sekarang dan seterusnya hari kemudian.

Sumber: Utusan Malaysia

Sunday, May 13, 2012


Chapter II

Moral sense is inborn in man and through the ages it has served as the common man's standard of moral behavior, approving certain qualities and disapproving others. While this instinctive faculty may vary from person to person, human conscience has given a more or less uniform verdict in favor of certain moral qualities as being good and declared certain others as bad. On the side of moral virtues, justice, courage, bravery and truthfulness have always elicited praise. History does not record any period worth the name in which falsehood, injustice, dishonesty, and breach of trust may have been upheld. Fellow-feeling, compassion, fidelity, and magnanimity have always been valued while selfishness, cruelty, miserliness and bigotry have never received the approval of the human society; men have always appreciated perseverance, determination and courage and have never approved of impatience, fickle-mindedness, cowardice and imbecility. Dignity, restraint, politeness, and amiability have throughout the ages been counted among virtues, whereas snobbery, misbehavior and rudeness have never found recognition as good moral qualities. Persons having a sense of responsibility and devotion to duty have always won the highest regard of men; never have people who are incompetent, slothful and lacking in sense of duty been looked upon with approval. Similarly, in respect of the standard of good and bad in the collective behavior of society as a whole, the verdict has always been almost unanimous. Only that society has been looked upon as worthy or honor and respect which possesses the virtues of organization, discipline, mutual affection and fellow feeling and has established a social order based on justice, freedom and equality of men. As opposed to this, disorganization, no-discipline, anarchy, disunity, injustice and social imbalance have always been considered as manifestations of decay and disintegration in a society. Robbery, murder, larceny, adultery, fraud and graft have always been condemned. Slandering, scandal mongering and blackmailing has never been considered as wholesome social activities.

Contrary to this service and care of the aged, help of one's kith and kin, regard for neighbors, loyalty to friends, assistance of the weak, the destitute and the orphans, and nursing the sick are qualities which have always been highly valued ever since the dawn of civilization. Virtuous, polite, mild and sincere persons have always been welcomed. Individual who are upright, honest, sincere, outspoken and dependable, whose needs conform to their words, who are content with their own rightful possession, who are prompt in the discharge of their obligations to others, who live in peace and let others live in peace and from whom nothing but good can be expected, have always formed the core of any healthy human society.

This shows that human moral standards are in fact universal and have been well-known to mankind throughout the ages. Good and evil are not myths to be hunted out. They are well- known realities and are equally well-understood by all. The sense of good and evil is inherent in the very nature of man. Hence, in the terminology of the Qur'an virtue is called "Ma'roof ' (something to be announced) and evil is designated as "Munkar" (something to be denounced); that is to say virtue is known to be desirable for every one and evil is not known to commend itself in any way. This fact is mentioned by the Qur'an when it says:
" And (Allah gave to the Soul) its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right; ..... (Quran, 91:8)
Why Differences ?

The questions that arises are: if the basic values of good and evil have been so well-known and there has virtually been a universal agreement thereon, then why do varying patterns of moral behavior exist in this world? Why are there so many and do conflicting moral philosophies? Why do certain moral standards contradict each other? What lies at the root of their difference? What is the unique position of Islam in the context of the prevailing ethical systems? On what grounds can we claim that Islam has a perfect moral system? And what exactly is the distinctive contribution of Islam in the real of ethics? These questions are important and must be squarely faced; but justice cannot be done to them on the brief span of this talk.

To cut a long story short, I shall briefly sum up some of those important points which strike us at the very outset when we undertake a critical examination of the contemporary ethical systems and the conflicting patterns of moral behavior.

(a) The present moral system fail to integrate various moral virtues and norms by prescribing their specific limits and utility and assigning to them their proper place. That is why they fail to provide a balanced and coherent plan of social conduct.

(b) The real cause of their differences seems to lie in the moral systems offering different standards for good and bad actions and enunciating different means of distinguishing good form evil. Differences also exist in respect of the sanction behind the moral law and in regard to the motives which impel a person to follow it.

(c) On deeper reflection, we find that the grounds for these differences emerge from different peoples conflicting views and concepts about the universe, the place of man in the universe, 'and the purpose of man on the earth. Various theories of ethics, philosophy and religion are but a record of the vast divergence of views of mankind on these most vital questions, viz. Is there a God and a Sovereign of the universe and if there is, is He One or are there many gods? What are Divine Attributes? What is the nature of the relationship between God and the human beings? Has God made any arrangements for guiding humanity through the rough and tumble of life or not? Is man answerable to God or not? If he is, then what are the matters for which he is to be answerable? What is the ultimate aim of man's creation which he should keep in view throughout his life? Answers to these questions will determine the way of life, the ethical philosophy and the pattern of moral behavior of the individual and the society.

It is difficult for me in this brief talk to take stock of the various ethical system prevalent in the world, indicate what solutions each one of them has proposed to these questions and what has been the impact of these answers on the moral evolution of the society believing in these concepts. Here I can confine myself to the Islamic concept only and this I shall try to propound.

Islamic Concept of Life And Morality

The viewpoint of Islam, however, is that this universe is the creation of God Who is One. He created it and He alone is its unrivaled Master, Sovereign and Sustainer. The whole universe is functioning under His Divine Command. He is All-Wise, All-Powerful and Omniscient. He is Subbooh and Quddoos that is, free from all defects, mistakes, weaknesses and faults and pure in every respect). His God-hood is free from partiality and injustice. Man is His creature, subject and servant and is born to serve and obey Him.

The correct way of life for man is to live in complete obedience to Him. It is not for man to determine the mode of worship and obedience; it is for God to decide this. God, being the master, has raised from time to time prophets for the guidance of humanity and has revealed His books through them. It is the duty of man to take the code of his life from these sources of divine guidance. Man is answerable to God for all his actions in life. The time for rendering an account will be in the life-hereafter and not in this world. The short span of worldly life is really an opportunity to prepare for that great test. In this life all efforts of man should be centered on the object of soliciting the Pleasure and Blessings of God in the Hereafter. During this test every person is responsible for all his beliefs and actions. He, with all his faculties and potentialities, is on trial. There will be an impartial assessment of his conduct in life. By a Being Who keeps a complete and correct record not merely of his movements and actions and their influence on all that is in the world from the tiniest speck of dust to the loftiest mountains but also a full record of his innermost ideas and feelings and intentions.

Goal of Moral Striving

This is Islam's fundamental attitude towards life. This concept of the universe and of man's place therein determines the real and ultimate goal which should be the object of all the endeavors of mankind and which may be termed briefly as "seeking the pleasure of God". This is the standard by which a particular mode of conduct is judged and classified as good or bad. This standard of judgment provides the nucleus around which the whole moral conduct should revolve. Man is not left like a ship without moorings, being tossed about by the blows of wind and tides. This dispensation places a central object before mankind and lays down values and norms for all moral actions. It provides us with a stable and flawless set of values which remains unaltered under all circumstances. Moreover, with making the "pleasure of God" as the object of man's life, a highest and noblest objective is set before humanity, and thus, unlimited possibilities are opened for man's moral evolution, unstained at any stage by any shadow of narrow selfishness or bigoted race or nation worship.
While providing a normal standard Islam also furnishes us with means of determining good and evil conduct. It does not base our knowledge of vice and virtue on mere intellect, desire, intuition, or experience derived through the sense-organs, which constantly undergo shifts, modifications and alterations and do not provide definite, categorical and unchanging standards of morality. It provides us with a definite source, the Divine Revelation, as embodied in the Book of God and the Sunnah way of life of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). This source prescribes a standard or moral conduct that is permanent and universal and holds good in every age and under all circumstances. The moral code of Islam covers the smallest details of domestic life as well as the broad aspects of national and international behavior. It guides us in every stage of life. These regulations imply the widest application of moral principles in the affairs of our life and make us free from exclusive dependence on any other source of knowledge, expect as an aid to this primary source.

Sanction Behind Morality
This concept of the universe and of man's place therein also furnishes the sanction that must lie at the back of every moral law. Viz., the love and fear of God, the sense of accountability on the Day of Judgment and the promise of eternal bliss and reward in the life hereafter. Although Islam wants to cultivate a powerful and strong mass opinion, which may induce individuals and groups to abide by the principles of morality laid by it and also aims at the evolution of a political system which would enforce the moral law, as far as possible, through its legislative and executive power. Islam's moral law does not really depend on these external pressures alone. It relies upon the inherent urge for good in every man which is derived from belief in God and a Day of Judgment. Before laying down any moral injunction, Islam seeks to firmly implant in man's heart the conviction that his dealings are with God Who sees him at all times and in all places. That he may hide himself from the whole world but not from Him. That he may deceive everyone but cannot deceive God. That he can flee from the clutches of any one else but not from God's. That while the world can see man’s onward life, only God probes into his innermost intentions and desires, that while he may, in his short sojourn on this earth, do whatever he likes but in any event he has to die one day and present himself before the Divine court of justice where no advocacy, favor, recommendation, misrepresentation, deception or fraud will be of any avail and where his future will be decided with complete impartiality and justice. There may or may not be any police, law court or jail in the world to enforce the observance of these moral injunctions and regulations but this belief firmly rooted in the heart, is the real force at the back of the moral law of Islam which helps in getting it enforced. If popular opinion and the coercive powers of the state exist to give it support so much the better; otherwise, this faith alone can keep a Muslim individual and a Muslim community on the straight path of virtue, provided, the spark of genuine faith dwells in their hearts.

Al-Ustaz Isu Perdana: Susahnya Mendidik Diri

al-Ustaz Isu Perdana: Susahnya Mendidik Diri
Penerbit: Telaga Biru Sdn Bhd

Harga: RM09.00(SM) dan RM11.00(SS)

Tahniah diucapkan kepada Syarikat Telaga Biru Sdn Bhd, kini mengorak selangkah kehadapan apabila telah berjaya menerbitkan sebuah majalah yang berbentuk soal jawab yang diberi nama al-Ustaz. Majalah al-Ustaz kini boleh didapati di pasaran dan bakal merungkai segala persaolan-persoalan semasa dan remeh-temeh dalam perkara agama

yang sering timbul dibenak fikiran masyarakat. Al-Ustaz diwakili oleh kolumnis-kolumnis yang mempunyai kepakaran dalam bidang masing-masing sama ada dari dalam dan luar negara. Corak penyampaian yang lebih santai, padat dan lengkap serta dikukuhkan dengan pelbagai dalil-dalil daripada al-Quran dan hadis Nabi terhadap sesuatu persoalan/isu yang dibincangkan, menyebabkan majalah ini amat perlu dimiliki oleh setiap orang selain ianya mudah untuk difahami.

Sehubungan itu, kehadiran al-Ustaz di pasaran ilmu amat bertepatan sekali kerana mampu menjadi pelengkap kepada majalah-majalah ilmiah berbentuk keagamaan yang sedia ada disamping dapat memenuhi keperluan masyarakat yang kini semakin sedar akan kepentingan ilmu agama untuk merawat jiwa dan rohani.

Semoga al-Ustaz mendapat sambutan yang baik dan dapat dijadikan sebagai teman yang seterusnya dalam kehidupan selepas al-Quran dan hadis Nabi (yang merupakan panduan utama umat Islam) seiring dengan majalah Solusi yang merupakan majalah ulung Telaga Biru.

Jangan lepaskan peluang untuk mendapatkan keluaran al-Ustaz pada setiap bulan. Isu Perdana kali ini, mengemukakan persoalan mengenai "Susahnya Mendidik Diri: Apakah Penyelesaiannya".


01. Ahsanul Kalam (Fatwa): Hukum memotong kuku ketika berjunub

02. Tadabur dan Tazakkur (Tafsir): Merasai kehebatan al-Quran

03. Aqidah: Hak asasi dalam Islam

04. Fiqah Harian: Bolehkah berwuduk dengan air laut?

05. Motivasi Keluarga: Seorang ayah yang panas baran

06. Fiqah Solat: Hukum solat hajat berjemaah

07. Islam Satu Cara Hidup: Tunaikan hak dijalanan agar aman?

08. Tajwid Qiraat: Ilmu tajwid dan Qiraat

09. Ayat-Ayat Cinta: Hanya peringatan daripada dunia

10. Fiqah Zakat: Jangan meremehkan kewajipan zakat

11. Belitan Iblis: Siapa Iblis sebenarnya?

12. Fiqah Puasa: Hukum mencium isteri pada siang hari pada bulan Ramadan?

13. Ayuh Fikir: Mudahkan, jangan sukarkan

14. Fiqah Dakwah: Bagaimana menghadapi cabaran berdakwah?

15. Bicara Muslimah: Jadilah ibu yang penyantun dan tenang

16. Fiqah Haji: Haji, ibadat yang paling suci

17. Bila Hati Diketuk: Bukti seorang munafik

18. Kemusykilan Remaja: Hati belum terbuka untuk menutup aurat

19. Tasbih Cinta: Hela nafas

20. Fiqah Hadis: Benarkah Rasulullah menjamak solat di Madinah?

21. Hikmah Ibadah: Akidah diri dalam ibadah

22. Jejak Rasul: Kemantapan hujah bagi menangkis kebatilan

23. Amar Makruf Nahi Mungkar: Berbuat baik terhadap haiwan

24. Perbankan Islam: Kukuh silaturahim dengan hutang

25. Bicara Tasawuf: Kemuncak matlamat tasauf

26. Fiqah Muamalat: Apakah hikmah jual beli disyariatkan

27. Santapan Rohani: Bukan sekadar hiasan

28. Fiqah Semasa: Sambutan hari ibu

29. Buat Diriku Yang Mudah Lupa: Cinta

30. Bicara Sunnah: Sunnah; sumber daripada Nabi

31. Bicara al-Quran: Surah esklusif untuk Muhammad s.a.w

32. Fiqah Non Muslim: Islam agama harmoni

33. Adab: Adakah Allah reda kepadaku?

34. Jejak Salafus Soleh: Taubat si peminum arak

35. Halal & Haram: Maksud logo halal JAKIM

36. Iktibar Dari Mahkamah: Padah silap memilih kawan

37. as-Siasah al-Islamiah: Perkataan siasah tiada dalam al-Quran?

38. Persiapan Mati: Mati satu kepastian

39. Iqtarabatis Sa'ah: Tanda kiamat kecil dan besar

40. Mantap Faraid: Faraid tidak adil kepada wanita?

41. Wasatiah: Meluruskan pandangan tentang konsep wasatiah

42. Macam-Macam Musykil: Bilakah disebut bertunang?

43. Muslihat Yahudi: Yahuza asal Yahudi

44. Fiqah Taharah: Najis atau kotor

45. Fiqah Didik: Anak soleh bermula daripada iman yang mantap

46. Fiqah Perkahwinan: Berkongsi kasih kerana poligami

47. Islam Dan Sains: Keajaiban al-Quran tentang sains